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The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam by Yusuf al-Qaradawi

Table of Index

Reviewer's Note 
Chapter 1: The Islamic Principles Pertaining to Halal and Haram 1. The Basic Asl Refers to the Permissibility of Things 
2. To Make Lawful and to Prohibit Is the Right of Allah Alone 
3. Prohibiting the Halal and Permitting the Haram Is Similar to Committing Shirk 
4. The Prohibition of Things Is Due to Their Impurity and Harmfulness 
5. What is Halal Is Sufficient, While What is Haram Is Superfluous 
6. Whatever Is Conducive to the Haram Is Itself Haram 
7. Falsely Representing the Haram as Halal Is Prohibited 
8. Good Intentions Do Not Make the Haram Acceptable 
9. Doubtful Things Are To Be Avoided 
10. The Haram Is Prohibited to Everyone Alike 
11. Necessity Dictates Exceptions

Chapter 2: The Halal And The Haram In The Private Life of Muslim Section 1: Food and Drink The Attitude of the Brahmins Toward Slaughtering Animals and Eating Meat 
Animals Prohibited to the Jews and Christians 
The Attitude of the Pre-Islamic Arabs 
Islam Permits What Is Wholesome The Prohibition of Eating What Is Dead and Its Wisdom 
The Prohibition of Flowing Blood 
That Which Is Dedicated to Anyone Other Than Allah 
Types of Dead Animals 
Reasons for the Prohibition of the Foregoing Categories 
Animal Sacrifices 
The Exemption of Sea Food and Locusts 
Making Use of the Skin, Bones, and Hair of the Animal 

Necessity Dictates Exceptions 
Medical Necessity 
Necessity Does Not Exist if the Society Possesses Excess Food 
The Islamic Manner of Slaughtering All Marine Animals Are Halal 
Prohibited Terrestrial Animals 
The Requirement of Slaughtering in the Islamic Manner 
The Conditions of Islamic Slaughtering 
The Wisdom of the Islamic Manner of Slaughtering 
The Significance of Mentioning Allah's Name 
Animals Slaughtered by the People of the Book 
Animals Slaughtered for Churches and Christian Festivals 
Animals Slaughtered By Electric Shock and Other Methods 
The Meat of Zoroastrians and Others Like Them 
A Rule: What We Do Not See Should Not Be Probed Into 

Hunting Conditions Pertaining to the Hunter 
Conditions Pertaining to the Game 
Conditions Pertaining to the Instrument 
Hunting with Weapons 
Hunting with Dogs and the Like 
When the Game is Found Dead 

Intoxicants All That Intoxicates Is Haram 
Whatever Intoxicates in Large Amounts is Haram in Any Amount 
Trading in Alcohol 
Alcohol Cannot Be Given as a Gift 
Avoiding Drinking Parties 
Alcohol, Itself a Disease, Cannot Be a Medicine 

Drugs The Consumption of Harmful Things is Haram 

Section 2 : Clothing and Adornment Cleanliness and Beautification Are Characteristics of Islam 
Gold and Silk Gold and Pure Silk are Haram for Men 
The Wisdom of These Two Prohibitions Concerning Men 
Why Gold and Silk are Permitted to Women 

The Dress of the Muslim The Dress of the Muslim Woman 
Concerning Woman's Imitating Man and Vice Versa 
Dressing for the Sake of Ostentation and Pride 

Artificial Changes of Features Going to Extremes in Beautification by Changing What Allah Created 
The Prohibition of Tattooing, Cutting the Teeth, and Undergoing Surgery for Beautification 
Plucking the Eyebrows 
Wigs and Hairpieces 
Dyeing the Hair 
Letting the Beard Grow 

Section 3: The Home Items Related to Luxurious Living and Paganism 
The Use of Gold and Silver Gold and Silver Utensils 

Satutes Islam Prohibits Statues 
The Wisdom of Prohibiting Statues 
The Islamic Manner of Commemorating the Great 
The Exemption of Children's Toys 
Incomplete or Defaced Statues 
Paintings and One-Dimensional Ornaments 
The Permissibility of a Debased Figure 

Photographs The Subject Matter of Photographs 
A Summary of the Rulings Pertaining to Figures awl Their Makers 

Dogs Keeping Dogs Without Necessity 
The Permissibility of Keeping Hunting Dogs and Watch Dogs 
The Findings of Scientific Research Relative to Keeping Dogs 

Section 4: Work and Earning Livelihood The Obligation to Work If One Is Able 
When Begging is Allowable 
Dignity of Work 
Agriculture Earning Through Agriculture 
Prohibited Crops 

Industries Industries and Professions 
Industries and Professions Condemned by Islam 

Trade Prohibited Kinds of Trade 
Salaried Employment 
Prohibited Types of Employment 

A General Rule in Earning a Living 

Chapter 3: The Halal And The Haram In Marriage And Family Life Section 1: The Physical Appetites The Prohibition of Approaching Zina 
Looking With Desire at the Opposite Sex 
The Prohibition of Looking at the 'Awrah of Others 
What May Be Seen of the Man or Woman 
The Display of Women's Adornment: What Is and What Is Not 
Women's 'Awrah 
Concerning Women Going to Public Baths 
The Prohibition of the Display of Women's Attractions 
How a Muslim Woman Should Conduct Herself 
A Woman's Serving Male Guests 
Sexual Perversion: A Major Sin 
A Ruling Concerning Masturbation 

Section 2: Marriage No Monasticism in Islam 
Seeing the Woman to Whom One Proposes Marriage 
Prohibited Proposals 
The Consent of the Girl 
Women To Whom Marriage is Prohibited Marriages Prohibited by Reason of Fosterage 
In-Law Relationships 
Sisters as Co-Wives 
Married Women 
Mushrik Women 

Marriage to the Women of the People of the Book 
The Prohibition of a Muslim Woman's Marrying a Non-Muslim Man 
Temporary Marriage (Mut'ah) 
Marrying More Than One Woman 
Justice Among Wives - A Condition 
Why Marriage to More Than One Woman is Permitted in Islam 

Section 3: The Relationship Between Husband and Wife The Sexual Relationship 
Prohibited Intercourse 
Guarding the Secrets Between the Husband and Wife 

Section 4: Contraception Valid Reasons for Contraception 

Section 5: Divorce Mutual Tolerance Between Husband and Wife 
Rebelliousness and Strife 
When Divorce Becomes Permissible 
Divorce in the Pre-Islamic Period 
Divorce in Judaism 
Divorce in Christianity Differences Among Christian Denominations Regarding Divorce 
Consequences of the Christian Stand on Divorce 
The Christian Stand on Divorce: A Temporary Injunction, Not a Permanent Law 

The Islamic Limits for the Regulation of Divorce 
The Prohibition of Divorcing During Menstruation 
Taking an Oath of Divorce 
Where the Divorcee Resides During the Waiting Period 
Repeated Divorce 
Reconciling Honorably or Separating with Kindness 
The Divorced Woman's Freedom to Remarry 
The Woman's Right to Demand Divorce 
The Prohibition of ill-treatment 
The Prohibition of the Oath of Desertion 

Section 6: The Relationship Between Parents and Children The Protection of the Lineage 
The Prohibition of Denying Paternity 
The Prohibition of Legal Adoption A Practical Example of the Abolition of Legal Adoption 

Adopting a Child to Rear and to Educate 
Artificial Insemination 
Attributing the Child to a Man Other Than the Child's Father 
"Do Not Kill Your Children" 
Equal Treatment of Children 
Observing the Limits of Allah Regarding Inheritance 
Disobedience to Parents: A Major Sin 
Insulting Parents: A Major Sin 
The Parent's Consent for Jihad 
Non-Muslim Parents 

Chapter 4: The Halal And The Haram In The Daily Life of The Muslim Section 1: Beliefs and Customs Respect for Allah's Laws in the Universe 
The War Against Superstitions and Myths 
Believing in Those Who Foretell the Future Constitutes Kufr 
Divination With Arrows 
Charms and Amulets 
The War Against Jahili Customs 
No Chauvinism in Islam 
Lineage is Without Significance 
Mourning for the Dead 

Section 2: Business Transactions The Prohibition of Selling Haram Goods 
The Prohibition of a Sale Involving Uncertainty 
Price Manipulation 
The Condemnation of Hoarding 
Interference in the Free Market 
The Permissibility of Brokerage 
Exploitation and Fraud 
"He Who Deceives Us Is Not of Us" 
Frequent Swearing 
Withholding Full Measure 
The Prohibition of Buying Stolen Property 
The Prohibition of Interest 
The Wisdom of Prohibiting Interest 
The Borrower on Interest and the Writer of the Deed 
Concerning the Prophet's Seeking Refuge with Allah from 
Sale for Deferred Payment (Credit) 
Payment in Advance 
Partnership Between Capital and Labor 
Partnership Among Owners of Capital 
Insurance Companies Do Insurance Companies Constitute Cooperatives? 
A Modification 
The Islamic System of Insurance 

The Use of Cultivable Land 1. Cultivating the Land Himself 
2. Lending the Land to Others for Cultivation 
3. Taking a Proportion of the Crop 
4. Renting the Land for Money 

Partnership in Raising Animals 

Section 3: Recreation and Play "A Time for This and a Time for That" 
The Humanness of the Messenger of Allah 
Relaxing the Mind 
Permissible Sports Foot Racing 
Spear Play 
Horseback Riding 

Playing with Dice: Backgammon 
Playing Chess 
Singing and Music 
Gambling, the Companion of Drinking 
The Lottery, a Form of Gambling 

Section 4: Social Relationships The Unlawfulness of Severing Ties with a Fellow Muslim 
Settling Disputes 
"Let Not Some People Mock at Other People" 
"Do Not Slander" 
"Do Not Revile by Nicknames" 
Spreading Gossip 
The Sacredness of Honor 
The Sacredness of Life 
"The Murderer and the Murdered Will Be in Hell" 
The Sanctity of the Lives of Allies and Non-Muslim Residents 
Capital Punishment 
The Sanctity of Property 
The Prohibition of Bribery 
Gifts to Officials 
Bribery to Redress a Wrong 
Wasteful Spending 

Section 5: Social Relationships Special Consideration for the People of the Book 
Non-Muslim Residents of an Islamic State 
Meaning of Friendship with Non-Muslims 
Seeking Help From Non-Muslims 
The Extension of Islam's Universal Mercy to Animals 

Concluding Remarks 


The methodology of this book is unique in dealing with the many subjects it covers. In fact, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi is a pioneer, the first to handle this subject using this particular approach. He has attempted, with considerable success in the Arabic original, to collect and summarize the issues from both ancient and modern Islamic references. Being himself a recognized Islamic scholar, he has had to make a judgement in selecting those points of view which he strongly felt meet the needs of Muslims in reference to the changing circumstances of this time.

However, this by no means presents all dimensions of the "discussion relating to each issue, which it is impossible to cover in a book of this modest size. Although the present volume is very useful, it cannot by itself fill the gaps, meet the challenges, or answer the multitude of questions which face Muslim communities living in the Western world. It is time that sincere and qualified Muslim scholars who have lived in the West, and who possess mastery of the Islamic fiqh, introduce into English a fiqh which will meet our Islamic needs in this part of the world, one which will demonstrate the ability of Islam, as Allah's final message to mankind, to meet the changing requirements of human society. We hope that this call to our brothers and sisters will not be lost, and that the Muslims in North America will carry out the responsibilities which confront them in a forceful and dynamic fashion. Insha'Allah the day will not be far off when the major reference works available in the Islamic languages - Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Turkish, etc. - will be accurately translated into English, giving the English-speaking Muslims the privilege of drawing their own conclusions concerning the many issues which confront them today.

We pray that Allah will forgive us, and that He will bless our work and make it useful for the Muslims of the English-speaking world.

Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Hammad

Al-Halal (the lawful): That which is permitted, with respect to which no restriction exists, and the doing of which the Law-Giver, Allah, has allowed.
Al-Haram Al-Haram (the prohibited or unlawful): That which the Law-Giver has absolutely prohibited; anyone who engages in it is liable to incur the punishment of Allah in the Hereafter as well as a legal punishment in this world.
Al-Makruh Al-Makruh (the detested): That which is disapproved by the Law-Giver but not very strongly. The makruh is less in degree than the haram, and the punishment for makruh acts is less than for those that are haram, except when done to excess and in a manner which leads an individual toward what is haram.

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