Haq:A Compilation on the Five Fundamentals of Islam
12 - Zakaat
importance of Zakaat
Zakaat is a monetary devotion and an Ibaadat that has been ordained in the
Shariats of all the Ambiya. Zakaat is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Zakaat literally means to increase. Technically it means lo purify one's
position of wealth by distributing a prescribed amount which has to be given to
the poor as a fundamental Ibaadat. Zakaat is not a governmental tax, but its
main purpose is to keep those who are wealthy clean monetarily from sins.
Zakaat was made compulsory at Makkah at the same time as Salaat. This can be
seen in the Surahs of the Qur'aan where the laws of Zakaat are mentioned. The
amount, distribution, etc. was defined at Madinah in the second year Hijri.
virtues of Zakaat
Allah Ta'aala says in the Qur'aan, "Allah destroys wealth obtained
from interest and will give increase for deed of charity." (Surah
has said, "The nation that does not give Zakaat, Allah will bring
about a drought on them (i.e. necessities of life, will become scarce.)"
2. "The persons on whom Allah has bestowed wealth, and he does not
give Zakaat, on the Day of Qiyaamah, his wealth will be turned into a venomous
bald serpent which will wind around his neck and bite his jaws and say, "I
am your wealth, I am your treasure." (Bukhari)
It is stated in the Hadith that by giving Zakaat the following benefits are
1. Gaining of the pleasure of Allah;
2. Increase in wealth;
3. Protection from losses;
4. A cause thus established for Allah's forgiveness and blessings are obtained;
5. Safety from calamities;
6. Protection from the wrath of Allah and from a bad death;
7. The Zakaat will provide a shelter on the Day of Judgement;
8. Security from seventy misfortunes;
9. It will serve as a shield from the fires of Jahannam;
10. It contributes to Barkat in wealth;
11. It saves from fear and grief.
There are two major benefits of giving Zakaat:
1. It keeps one away from sin and saves the giver from moral ill arising from
the love and greed for weatlh;
2. Through Zakaat the poorer class (those, who are not capable of providing for
themselves) are being cared for, such as widows. orphans, the disabled, the poor
and the destitute.
punishment for not giving Zakaat
Allah Ta'aala says in the Qur'aan, "And there are those who hoard
gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, announce to them a most
grievous penalty (when) on the Day of Qiyaamah heat will be produced out of that
wealth in the fire of Jahannam, then with ii they will be branded on their
foreheads and their flanks and backs. (It will be said to them) This is the
treasure which you hoarded for yourselves, taste then the treasure that you had
been hoarding." (Surah Taubah:34)
whom Zakaat is Farz
Zakaat is Farz upon a person if: -
1. He is a Muslim;
2. He is an adult;
3. He is a sane person;
4. He is a free person;
5. He owns wealth intended for trading to the value of Nisaab.
Furthermore the wealth should be:
a. Fully owned by him;
b. In excess of his personal needs (clothing, household furniture, utensils and
cars etc. are termed as articles of personal use),
c. It should be possessed by him for a complete lunar year;
d. Of a productive nature from which he can derive profit or benefit such as
merchandise for business, gold, silver, livestock, etc.
There is no Zakaat on effects that are not of a productive nature even if
these are in excess of one's needs, such as cars, utensils, furniture etc. If
such items are not intended for trade.
Note:- Zakaat is Farz. Any person who denies it being Farz (compulsory) loses
his Imaan. However if he recognizes Zakaat being Farz but neglects this duty he
will be termed a Faasiq (Transgressor).
of wealth on which Zakaat is Farz
1. Zakaat is Farz on gold and silver, be it in the form of bullion, jewellery,
cash, bank notes, utensils or any other form. The value of these should be equal
to the amount which is shown under Nisaab rate.
2. If the gold possessed is not equal fo the value of 87,48 grams, or silver
possessed is not equal to the value of 612,36 grams, but the value of both
combined is equal to the value of either the Nisaab of gold or siiver, then
Zakaat will be Farz.
3. In the event of an article not being of pure gold or pure silver, but
containing a mixture of other metals and the gold or silver is more than the
other metal, it will be regarded as gold or silver and Zakaat on this will be
Farz. But in this case where the metal is of greater quantity than either the
gold or silver, Zakaat will not be Farz on that article.
4. If a person has 620 grams of silver (which is more than the Nisaab) and
before a whole year has elapsed he acquires 50 grams of gold (which is less than
the Nisaab), then the value of this gold must be added to the value of the
silver, and thereafter the Nisaab reckoned. The two must not be reckoned
separately, as this will be a cause of avoiding Zakaat.
5. Zakaat is Farz on merchandise for business, equal to the value of Nisaab.
6. Zakaat is Farz on livestock.
7. Zakaat is Farz on the income of propertles if it is equal to the value of
8. Zakaat is Farz on the income derived from a hiring business, such as
crockery, motor cars, vans, trucks etc.
of wealth on which Zakaat is not Farz
1. Zakaat is not Waajib on any other metal besides gold and silver.
2. Zakaat is not Waajib on fixtures and fittings of a shop, motor car, truck or
any delivery vehicle etc, which is used in running a business.
3. There is no Zakaat on diamonds, pearls, other precious or semi-precious
stones which are personal use. Zakaat is payable on the gold or silver used in
making jewellery with diamonds, pearls etc. There is no Zakaat on imitation
4. There is no Zakaat on any number of living quarters, household furniture,
crockery, personal clothing, whether they are in use or not. However, Islam does
not justify extravagance.
5. There is no Zakaat on a person whose liabilities exceed or equal his assets.
6. A person has R300-00, but owes R200-00. Zakaat is due on the remaining
on which Zakaat is Farz
1. It is compulsory to give Zakaat on camels cattle, water buffaloes, goats
and sheep. (any such Halaal animal that can be slaughtered for Qurbani in terms
of Shariat) when they
a.graze on the open field for the greater part of the year and are not stall
b. are kept for milk, breeding or fattening. Such animals are termed 'Saa'imah'.
2. Zakaat on Saa'imah animals is calculated on number and not value therefore
stud or throughbred animals and crossbred animals are treated alike for Zakaat
3. Where animals are kept for trade, Zakaat will be calculated and given as is
done in commercial establishments.(i.e. on the monetary value of each animal)
The Nisaab is the same as that of trading.
4. If one has a mixed flock of goats and sheep and the number of each kind
individually makes Zakaat applicable then the Zakaat of each respective group
will be given from its own kind.
5. When the number of each type of animal individually does not make Zakaat
binding, but the total of both kinds does amount to the Nisaab then Zakaat will
be given from the type of animal that is greater in number.
6. If both kinds are equal in number, one has the option of choosing the Zakaat
animal from whichever kind he desires. It must be noted that the Zakaat animal
should he of a good quality.
on which Zakaat is not Farz
1. Animals that are stall fed for six months of the year and then left to
graze on the field for the remainder of the year are not 'Saa'imah' and thus no
Zakaat will be liable on their owner.
2. There is no Zakaat payable on animals which are reared for riding, or for
drought purposes or for one's own use or consumption.
3. There is no Zakaat on wild game.
4. There is no Zakaat on horses, donkeys and mules if they are not for trade.
5. There is no Zakaat on a herd which consists of calves only i.e. until they
reach a capable age of breeding. If such a herd has one animal that could be
used for breeding, then Zakaat will have to be given on all of them. In this
case that particular full grown animal will have to be given as Zakaat. If this
animal which is capable of breeding dies, then Zakaat will still necessary uppn
the rest of the herd calves.
6. Zakaat is not applicable on sheep that are less than twelve months old.
and rate of Zakaat
The amount of wealth which makes one liable for Zakaat is called Nisaab.
The payment of Zakaat is compulsory on the excess wealth or effects which is
equal to/or exceeds the value of Nisaab, and which is possessed for a full
Islamic year. If such wealth decreases during the course of the year, and it
increases again to the value of Nisaab before the end of the year, the Zakaat
then must be calculated on the full amount that is possessed at the end of the
The Nisaab of gold and silver fixed by Rasulullah
is as follows
The rate of Zakaat which was fixed by Rasulullah
is 2.5% (1/40) i.e, 2.5 cents in a rand.
time and Nisaab of Zakaat for livestock
1. The owner must have possession of animals for one lunar year before Zakaat
2. The Nisaab for 'Saa'imah' animals is governed by the number of animals in
ones ownership and not by the monetary value of each animal. (refer to tables
of Zakaat for sheep and goats
The Nisaab (minimum number) when Zakaat becomes applicable is forty animals
which are more than twelve months old. There is no Zakaat of the number is less
Thereafter for each additional hundred, one sheep that is one year old
must be given as Zakaat.
||1 year old
|40 - 120
|121 - 200
|201 - 399
of Zakaat for cattle and water buffaloes
The Nisaab when Zakaat becomes applicable is thirty animals. There is no
Zakaat if the number is less than thirty.
Thereafter, in every thirty animals, one 1 year old animal should be given and
in every forty, a two year old animal should be given as Zakaat. Example: -
||1 year old
||2 year old
|30 - 39
|40 - 59
|60 - 69
||1 year old
||2 year old
||2 animals plus
||1 animal plus
||4 animals or
Details: about this Book
Ayesha R.A. reported: Rasulullah (SAW) and I bathed in
one utensil, and the mubarak hair of Rasulullah (SAW) was longer than those that
reached the ear lobes, and were less than those that reached the
shoulders". (It means that they were not very long nor were they
short, but of a medium length).
It is not clear from this hadith if both bathed in a
state of undress. Ayesha R.A. herself says: 'I did not see the private
parts of Sayyidina Rasulullah (SAW), nor did he see my private
parts'. Also the using of water from the same utensil cannot prove this.
There are many ways both could have bathed from the same utensil and yet not see
the private parts of one another.
From this hadith we also learn of the bathing together of husband and wife.
The ulama are unanimous in accepting Imaam Nawawi's saying that this is jaa'iz
(permissible). Another method is that the husband bathes first and the
wife bathes after him with the remaining water. This is also unanimously
accepted by all. The third method is the opposite where the wife bathes
first then the husband bathes with the remaining water. This method is
accepted by the Hanafis, Shaafi'ees and the Maalikis. The Hunbalis says it is
not permissible, but if the husband is present and both bath together, then it
is permissible. The pros and cons of this subject are very lengthy,
therefore they have been omitted here. This subject have been mentioned
briefly in Arabic commentary. Since a reputed Imaam opposes this, and this
has also been mentioned in the hadith, it will therefore to better to abstain